Hexagram 04, line 2


Bao meng 包蒙: Several old books, like Lu Deming’s 陸德明 Jingdian Shiwen 經典釋文,  claim that  older texts used biao 彪 instead of bao.

唐石經作”苞”. 京房、鄭玄、陸績、一行作”彪”.
The Tang Stone Classics use bao 苞. Jing Fang, Zheng Xuan and Lu Ji all use 彪.
(Deng Qiubai 邓球柏, “帛书周易校释”, p. 136)

Karlgren says in his Loan Characters in Pre-Han Texts:

Loan Characters: 苞 ‘reed mat; bushy, dense” voor 彪 defined as = 文 ‘motley; to make beautiful, to refine’ says Cheng Huan (following the tradition of the Jing Fang school) on Yi: Gua 4 苞蒙 (in later editions changed to 包蒙) – Possible. Whether 包蒙, as mostly stated, means: “(to embrace:) have patience with the ignorant”; or 彪蒙 means: “(to make fine:) to educate the ignorant”; or the both mean something entirely different cannot be determined, since the Yi text, as often, is quite obscure.
(entry 1160)

Biao originally refers to the stripes on a tiger’s body, but later it also referred to outstanding literary talent, beautiful written essays, literature etc. In the Cai Zhong Lang Ji 蔡中郎集 by Cai Yong (132–192) we read:

童蒙来求, 彪之用文…
When the young ignorant comes to ask, biao him by using literature…

From the context we can deduce that biao might refer to education, teaching or training. The later used bao 包 is often read as ‘include, tolerate, pardon’ (包容;包含), meanings that the variant character bao 苞 also has.

Na 納:  ‘to take’, ‘to marry’ (娶)

Fu 婦: daughter-in-law (兒媳)

Zi 子: a son, but it can also refer to the heir of a monarch (國君的繼承人,嗣君)

Ke 克: can, be able, be capable of (能夠)

Jia 家: get married (結婚成家)

Educating ignorance; auspicious.
To take a daughter-in-law is auspicious,
(So that) the heir can marry.

Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.