Hexagram 03, line 4 & 5

Line 4

乘馬班如.求婚媾.往吉. 無不利.

See also line 2.

Carts lingering,
Seeking marriage (for tying bonds).
Going is auspicious.
Nothing disadvantageous.

Line 5

屯其膏.小貞吉.大貞凶.

Gao 膏: The best; cream; quintessence of something. The 王力古漢語字典 gives as one of the meanings ‘the best place/location’ (‘精華所在’; p. 1008).

The best place for stationing troops.
Divination for small issues: auspicious.
Divination for big issues: inauspicious.

Hexagram 03, line 3

即鹿無虞.惟入于林中.君子幾不如舍.往吝.

Ji 即: approach; be close to

Lu 鹿: general term for deer, reindeer, moose, etc. According to Lu Deming’s 陸德明 Jingdian Shiwen 經典釋文 the Wang Su 王肅 notes have lu 麓, the foot of a hill or mountain. Kong Yingda 孔穎達 reads 鹿 as 麓 in his Chunqiu Zuozhuan Zhengyi 春秋左傳正義 :

鹿,山足。林屬於山曰鹿.
Lu 鹿 is the foot of a mountain. A forest that is joined to a mountain is called lu 鹿.

Yu 虞: a forester; someone who is in charge of the forests and everything that lives in it. In the Shujing 書經 we read:

帝曰:「疇若予上下草木鳥獸?」僉曰:「益哉!」帝曰:「俞,咨!益,汝作朕虞。」
The Di said, ‘Who can superintend, as the nature of the charge requires, the grass and trees, with the birds and beasts (on my hills and in my marshes)?’ All (in the court) replied, ‘Is there not Yi?’ The Di said, ‘Yes. Ho! Yi do you be my forester.’

In the Zhouli 周禮 we have a passage in which a forester is specifically linked to the forest that is near a mountain (麓):

每大林麓下士十有二人;史四人,胥十有二人,徒百有二十人。中林麓如中山之虞。小林麓如小山之虞。
Every large forest at the foot of a mountain requires 12 men of the Shi 士 (officials), of the Shi 史 (historians) four men, of the Xu 胥 (petty officials) twelve men, of the Tu 徒 (common workers) one hundred and twenty. A forest of middle size requires a quantity of foresters equal to the quantity required for a middle sized mountain. A forest of small size requires a quantity of foresters equal to the quantity required for a small sized mountain.

Ji 幾: before a verb it should be read as ‘should, ought to’ (用于動詞前,表示理當如此.可譯為“應當、“應該”等; 古代漢語虛詞詞典, p. 457).

Buru 不如, ‘not as good as’, ‘it is better to’.

She 舍: stop and stay overnight (留宿)

Lin 吝: similar to lin 遴, ‘difficulties; difficult progress’. According to Lu Deming Jing Fang 京房 uses 遴 instead of 吝. The Mawangdui text uses 𠳵, which is a known variant of 鄰 –> 遴.

Approaching the forest without a forester, only ending up in the middle of the woods. The lord should stop and stay overnight. To go results in difficulties.

Hexagram 03, line 2

屯如邅如.乘馬班如.匪寇婚媾.女子貞不字.十年乃字.

Tun 屯: to gather, assemble; to station troops, (to) garrison.

Ru 如: According to 古代漢語虛詞詞典 (p. 458-459) ‘多用于形容詞或副詞之后,也有用于動詞之后的,表示事物或動作的状态.可譯為“….一的樣子”、“….的” ‘ . Used behind a verb it denotes appearance, how something behaves or acts. Similar to today’s  ‘…一的樣子’ or ‘….的’. Often translated as ‘…-ing’. Ru after tun means that tun is a verb.

Zhan 邅: haltering, lingering; not able to go forward because of difficulties ahead.

Changma 乘馬: cart drawn by a horse; ride a horse.

Ban 班: same as ban 般, ‘linger, stay’. Zheng Xuan 鄭玄 has ban 般.

Kou 寇: invader, enemy (侵略者;敵人)

Hun 婚: marry

Gou 媾: is also related to marrying, meaning ‘to marry again’, ‘take a second wife’ (重婚,重疊交互為婚姻) with the sole purpose of tying bonds between families (親上加親; 結爲婚姻).

Zi 字: pregnant.

Shinian 十年: ‘ten years’, meaning ‘a long time’ (形容時間長久).

Troops gathering, haltering,
Carts lingering.
It is not an invader who wants to marry (for tying bonds).
Divination for a woman: she is not pregnant.
Only after a long time she will get pregnant.

Hexagram 03, Judgment & line 1

Name

Tun 屯: to gather, assemble; to station troops, (to) garrison (漢語大詞典, Vol. 1, p. 483).

Tuan 彖

元亨.利貞.勿用有攸往.利建侯.

You wang 攸往: see here. This phrase is currently under reinvestigation. About wang 往: The opposite of lai 來. To go to a place.  Wang Li 王力 says:

“往”是到某地去, “去”是離開某地,詞義正相反。直到近代, “去”才有 “往”義.
“往” is going to a certain place, “去” is leaving a certain place, it’s meaning is the opposite. Only until recent times “去” got the same meaning as “往”.
(王力古漢語字典, p. 295)

According to Wang, wang was not used to stress the meaning of ‘leaving’, it was used as a verb to indicate going in a certain direction.

Jian hou 建侯: establish feudal lords (封立諸侯).

Greatly accepted offering.
Favourable to divine.
Do not undertake a far journey.
Favourable to establish feudal lords.


First line

磐桓.利居貞.利建侯.

Panhuan 磐桓 = panhuan 盤桓: to stop, to stay, linger (逗留).

Ju 居: residence, the place where one stays to live or reside (住所); also ‘to stop (moving)’ (停息).

This line seems to talk about an oracle consultation for deciding the place to stay. There might be a link (albeit weak) with the story of Pan Geng 盤庚 in the Shujing about relocating the capital. Pan 磐 is an often used loan for pan 盤, en this line has intriguing connections with this story:

盤庚遷于殷,民不適有居,率籲眾慼出,矢言曰:「我王來,既爰宅于茲,重我民,無盡劉。不能胥匡以生,卜稽,曰其如台…
Pan-geng wished to remove (the capital) to Yin, but the people would not go to dwell there. He therefore appealed to all the discontented, and made the following protestations. ‘Our king came, and fixed on this. He did so from a deep concern for our people, and not because he would have them all die, where they cannot (now) help one another to preserve their lives. I have consulted the tortoise-shell, and obtained the reply: “This is no place for us.”

See also LiSe’s translation.

If we read pan 磐 as the name Pan (Geng) 盤(庚) the phrase 磐桓 could also read ‘Pan is worried’. But let’s not do that.

Stay (at the current location).
Favourable divination for (deciding) a residence.
Favourable to establish feudal lords.

Youwang 攸往

I am reinvestigating the phrase you wang 攸往: Li Xueqin 李学勤 says you 攸 was a place where king Di Yi 帝乙 travelled to, to perform sacrifices. This is interesting because Di Yi is mentioned in the Zhouyi. Will keep on digging, am not sure if this will lead somewhere. Scanning the complete 甲骨文献集成 corpus for leads. This will take some time.