Hexagram 04, Judgment


Meng 蒙: ignorant, confused, dark, hidden.

Tuan 彖


Fei 匪 = fei 非: ‘not, not be’.

Qiu 求: ask, inquire (請求; 詢問)

Tong meng 童蒙: same as tong meng 瞳矇 or tong meng 僮矇 – a person without knowledge or education:

純德行而民瞳矇, 曉惠之心未形生也.
Virtuous actions were out of the question, and the people were dull and beclouded. Knowledge and wisdom did not yet make their appearance.
Lun Heng 論衡, tr. Alfred Forke

But the context given by the line texts shows that tong is a verb, or an adverb: something is done to, or with, meng. With the proper meanings that tong has this is not possible. However, tong is often used as a loan for other characters, and one of these characters is zhong 重 (古代漢語通假字大字典, p. 646; 古文字通假字典, p. 468; 簡牘帛書通假字字典, p. 250). This character, among many other things, means ‘to repeat, do it again’ (表示動作行爲的重複,相當於“再”、“又”、“重新”). This meaning fits the Judgment text as well.

Meng 蒙: ignorant, confused, dark, hidden. Tong meng: repeatedly confused, ignorant.

Shi 筮: oracle consultation by means of yarrow stalks.

Gao 告: inform, report, notify.

Du 瀆: excessive, beyond the limits.

Accepted offering.
I do not ask the repeatedly ignorant,
The repeatedly ignorant asks me.
The first yarrow stalk oracle I report,
Two, three times is excessive.
When excessive I do not inform.
Favourable to divine.

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